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Safety Critical Maritime Infrastructure (SCMI) systems are vulnerable to diverse risks in their challenging field of operations due to their interactions and interdependence. In addition, the multiplicity of stakeholders in these systems and the complex operational scenarios are often associated with a high level of uncertainty because they usually operate in a dynamic environment in which the boundaries of safety are pushed, leading to the disruption of operations. Therefore, the safety of these systems is very important to ensuring resilience of their operations. This research is focus on the background analysis of SCMI systems. This includes operational processes of SCMI systems, security threats and estimates of economic damage to the system, resilience engineering literature relevant to maritime operations; regulatory overview including risk governance of the systems, lessons learnt from major accidents and a concluding remark is drawn.